Announcing The IJC's First Edited Collection
Critical Perspectives on Green Criminology:
This collection of essays is the first edited collection to be produced by the Internet Journal of Green Criminology (IJC). A rigorous selection process was applied to the collection with all submitted papers subject to anonymous review by at least two academics. Selection of papers followed an open submission process via the websites of the IJC and the International Green Criminology Working Group (IGCWG). As a result, papers were received from across the eco-global criminological spectrum and from scholars in a range of different locations, allowing for a wide range of green thought to be included. The collection thus draws together a range of potentially disparate ideas to provide for engaging discussion of current environmental crime discourse on animal protection (species justice) environmental harm and law enforcement (environmental justice) and socio-political discourse on the interaction between man and nature (ecological justice).
PEER REVIEWED CRIMINOLOGY ARTICLES
To download any of these peer reviewed, scholarly criminology articles please click on the links below.....
Do The Print Media Provide a Gender-Biased Representation of Male Rape Victims?
Debating The Term Cyber-Terrorism: Issues and Problems
The Fear of 'Crime-Media Feedback' Cycle
The Problem of Zombie Cops in Voodoo Criminology: Arresting the Police Patrol 100 Yard Myth
Russian Police and Transition to Democracy: Lessons from One Empirical Study
The Criminological Scale of Affectional Attachment:
Restricting Criminogenic Information: Toward a Balanced Approach to Limiting the First Amendment in Favor of Crime Control
‘Not Another Football Hooligan Story’?
Cops and Bloggers: Exploring the Presence of Police Culture on the Web
Tobacco Smoking and Incarceration: Expanding the ‘Last Poor Smoker’ Thesis
Repainting the Thin Green Line: The Enforcement of UK Wildlife Law
Moving into Social Housing and the Dynamics of Difference: Neighhbours from Hell with Nothing to Lose
Evaluation of the Lexington (Fayette County) Kentucky Juvenile Drug Court Program
Juvenile offending remains a concern in society, whether the concern is real or perceived. Although national data indicate that juvenile
offending rose significantly in the 1980s through the mid-1990s, the rates of offending overall have since leveled off and decreased. According to
Knoll and Sickmund (2010), this pattern is the result of the trends of various offense categories combined. However, one category, drug offenses, remains
persistently high despite a recent decrease in the number of arrests and cases processed in the juvenile courts. The implications for these offenders and
society are many, including academic difficulties, health-related consequences, poor peer and family relationships, mental health issues, violence, and
Social Safety Net or Social Hammock? Applying Deterrence Theory to Reduce the Severity of the Food Stamp Fraud Crisis in America
Due to massive government debt in the U.S., serious attempts are being made to cut budgets, particularly programs that are fraught with waste,
fraud, and abuse. Food stamp fraud, while historically ignored in the U.S., will soon become a target for budget cutting and increased law
enforcement. This crime, as well as the perpetrators who commit it, are compatible with the propositions of deterrence theory. It is argued here
that given the nature of this crime, enhanced sanctions can reduce its frequency and severity. Deterrence theory is outlined and policy implications
Restorative Practices: From The Early Socities To The 1970s
Restorative practices now appeal to the contemporary politician. Policies and practices are being reformed using the paradigm of restorative
justice. However, little research has been done on its historical roots. Many have even claimed that restorative practices do not have a history at
all. Through a review of historical and contemporary sources, this article challenges this claim. The paper provides a brief historical account of
restorative practices stretching from the acephalous societies until the 1970s. Four eras are identified in the fall and rise of restorative justice
through time. A historical debate and further academic research on restorative justice is warranted. The implications of a more informed understanding
of the history of restorative practices are significant for their implementation in contemporary society.
The Evolutional View of the Types of Identity Thefts and Online Frauds in the Era of the Internet
As far back as the early 1990s, the Internet was argued to be a unique medium showing the fastest speed of diffusion in human history
(Nguyen and Alexander, 1996). Today, there are very few people whose lives are not affected beneficially and/or harmfully by the
technology of the Internet era. On the positive side, the ability to share and exchange information instantaneously has provided
unprecedented benefits in the areas of education, commerce, entertainment and social interaction. On the negative side, it has
created increasing opportunities for the commission of crimes – information technology has enabled potential offenders to commit
large-scale crimes with almost no monetary cost and much lesser risk of being caught. Compared to perpetrators of traditional
economic-motivated crimes (e.g., burglaries, larcenies, bank robberies), online fraudsters are relatively free of worry from directly
encountering law enforcement and witnesses.
The authors aim to examine identity theft from an analytic angle with a focus on the expanded versatilities of this contemporary
crime. In the present article, the mechanism of identifying an individual is first discussed, followed by the definition and typology
of identity theft. Elements and methods of identity theft will be deconstructed for classification, and subsequent discussions will
be emphasized on recent variations in online fraud. The study will conclude with the implications of the close relations between
identity theft and the fast growing Internet, and suggestions for improved means of identity protection.
Women, Violence and Gray Zones: Resolving the Paradox of the Female Victim-Perpetrator
This article analyses the conflicting narratives surrounding the case of convicted Canadian offender Karla Homolka. As both a victim
and a perpetrator of violent crime Karla’s actions are positioned precariously between activity and passivity. It is precisely because
of this blurring of boundaries - between agency and victimization - that her case has received widespread critical discussion. Despite
attempts to ‘recuperate’ her narrative (Morrissey, 2003; Thompson and Ricard, 2009), Karla still presents us with a paradox. There is a
need then to unpack the relationship between Karla’s victimization (non-agency) and her criminal culpability (agency). This paper will
consider whether or not Primo Levi’s (1988) concept of ‘gray zones’ can resolve this paradox.
Identity and Ideology: The Dialogic Nature of Latrinalia
Graffiti has been an important cultural phenomenon throughout history.
However, research has yet to explore how the characteristics of the medium itself influence the graffiti for which it serves as a
backdrop. One of the most unique mediums in which graffiti regularly appears is public restrooms, which offer potential graffitists
almost complete anonymity. This study analyzed the content and communicative features of 323 graffito in public restrooms and their
relation to the nature of the space and larger socio-cultural values. The results show that no particular ideological paradigm is
predominant among the graffiti. Rather, the anonymity of the medium acts to preserve an ongoing ideological debate where identity is
formed and reframed throughout.
Gaming Subculture, Social Control and Virtual Criminality: An Ethnographic Account
In this study the author uses participant observation to examine the dynamics of formal and informal social control within an online game as they
relate to the
formation and control of deviant and criminal behaviors within this setting. This examination draws theoretically on the concepts of organic and
mechanical solidarities, referencing various examples of social control constructs within the specific online setting, and drawing conclusions regarding
on and offline subcultural structures and deviance more broadly. In the observed setting, a subgroup of players who regularly steal from other players
serve to illustrate a preference for informal social control among deviant actors in virtual settings. Further findings suggest an interaction between
formal and informal social control that results in a dynamic reciprocity between control mechanisms within subcultures both online and offline, and
furthermore that these dynamics are especially important in the formation of deviance. Methodological and Theoretical implications are
discussed, emphasizing the important opportunity for criminology to harness online settings as a site for studying crime and deviance.
From the 'Governance of Security' to 'Governance Failure': Refining the Criminological Agenda
Over the past three decades, an on-going debate has developed around the ways and extent to which the hierarchical, state-led provision of security
and policing has been displaced by a move toward a polycentric, network-oriented mode of governance. This paper, firstly, analytically reconstructs
the debate, suggesting that it is characterised by descriptive concordance, explanatory confluence, and normative dissonance. In other words, the
major area of contention has been around the social and political implications of the State’s decentring by a networked provision of security, a
transition that is accepted as having actually taken place. It is argued, secondly, that the debate has neglected to some considerable extent the
inherent functional (as opposed to normative) limitations of networked governance, and that all parties to the debate may have been somewhat precipitous
in accepting that such modes for delivering security can be functionally efficacious. Drawing on social theoretical explorations of ‘governance failure’, I
identify three distinctive failure tendencies inherent in nodal networks, and evaluate their implications for the wider debate on the future of security
Neighbourhood Influences on Fear of Crime and Victimization in Sweden: A Review of the Crime Survey Literature
Seeking to address neighbourhood characteristics that influence individual outcomes is continuously built into public policy in a
variety of policy areas. If the design of neighbourhood social interventions is informed by empirical knowledge then they may prove
be more cost effective than interventions that target individuals. The adequacy of the evidence to support such interventions is however
the subject of much international debate. This paper examines current criminological ‘knowledge’ in this area with particular reference to
the accumulated knowledge base in Sweden, which has never before been assessed.
Policing Prostitution in the Early United States: Sexual Equality and Discretionary Inequality
There were few clear rules governing the policing of prostitution in the early United States. Discretion was decisive. Prostitutes
who were poor and black were the most vulnerable to arrest. State and local officials clearly had the authority to police all
commercial sex but generally chose to tolerate it most of the time, and sometimes found themselves defending the property rights
of commercial sex businesses. Although many reformers worked hard to make prostitution a high-priority public issue, neither the
majority of citizens nor the average political official heeded them other than on a periodic basis. Two factors explain the vast
gulf between legal authorization to police prostitution and extremely limited enforcement. One factor involved the male public’s
belief that prostitution was morally wrong but was in itself no urgent matter. That was because the ancient idea of male sex-right
persisted into nineteenth-century America. The other factor was that the male officials who staffed the criminal justice systems of
the nation and the states simply refused to police the men who patronized prostitution. Occasionally, they policed the women who
worked in the commercial sex industry. The overall message of nineteenth-century American criminal justice systems was that women and
men were equally responsible for licentiousness, prostitution, and brothels but male officials used their discretion to ensure that
only women were vulnerable to the arrests, prosecution, and punishments for sex crimes.
Moral Panics and the British Media – A Look at Some Contemporary ‘Folk Devils’
The term moral panic has been widely adopted both by the mass media and in everyday usage to refer to the exaggerated social
reaction caused by the activities of particular groups and/or individuals. Such activities are invariably seen (at the time at least) as
major social concerns and the media led reaction magnifies and widens the ‘panic’ surrounding them. This review starts by considering
Stan Cohen’s seminal work on and analysis of moral panics – indeed it was his initial research in the early 1970s that popularized
the term itself – and looks at Jock Young’s almost contemporaneous study of drug users. More recent studies that have reflected on
and attempted to refine Cohen’s work, including Young’s revisiting of the notion that moral panics ‘translate fantasy into reality’, are
highlighted as is the relationship between ‘signal crimes’ (Innes 2003 and 2004) and moral panics. It then considers some historical
and contemporary examples of moral panics surrounding some quite different activities (and perpetrators of them) – in
particular, garotting in mid-Victorian England, ‘hoodies’ and paedophilia. The review concludes that there are key elements to
moral panics and that these panics are the result of real events and actual behaviour and cannot be dismissed as myths.
The Role of Social Cognition in the Development of the Criminal Career
Through an exploration of their narratives, this paper examines how social information processing styles among young Maltese
men may fail to protect offenders from pressures to offend and consequently contribute to criminal career progression and
increased commitment to criminality. The paper concludes that social cognitive distortions in the form of crime supportive
attitudes, cognitive processing during the commission of illegal behavior and post offence neutralizations, or ‘excuses’ for illegal
behavior, have an important role to play in the pursuit of a criminal career. This exploration of the role of interpersonal cognition
throws light on the development of criminality to reveal important avenues for intervention.
Death Row Phenomenon, Death Row Syndrome and their affect on Capital Cases in the US
In relation to the use of solitary confinement with death row inmates, death row phenomenon and death row syndrome are two concepts
which are slowly gaining ground in international circles. Death row phenomenon is used to describe the harmful effects of death row
conditions, including exposure to extended periods of solitary confinement and the mental anxiety that prisoners experience whilst
waiting for their death, whilst death row syndrome is used to describe the consequential psychological illness that can occur as a result
of death row phenomenon. This article looks at the meaning of these two concepts, the ways in which they have begun to enter into
judicial opinion and questions the potential effect they may have on the legality of capital sentences. The article also briefly
considers the legitimacy of these concepts as medical conditions and assesses whether they are instead another example of the
medicalization of morals.
The “Grey Zone” of Political Corruption in Germany
Since the 1990s there has been an ongoing discourse on and increased efforts against corruption. Besides the proliferation of research activities,
governments, public authorities and other institutional actors have been provided with recommendations and policies meant either to confront the
problem head on or to establish rules and counter-measures to curb its further growth. Institutional anticorruption action has at the same time
been assisted by the research and field work of numerous non-governmental organisations.
Inside Parenting Programmes: Case Studies of Family Group Conferencing
A qualitative case study approach was taken to evaluate three areas of early intervention Family Group Conferencing (FGC): the preparation
procedure; the young people’s understanding of FGC and finally, the consistency of outcomes. Participants consisted of four families and two
practitioners who had taken part in an inner-city early intervention project. Findings indicated that the preparation procedure contained some
gaps. The children generally appeared to understand why FGC was necessary. The families developed some dependence on the project worker despite
indications that some of the practitioners were more stigmatising of the families than may have been predicted.
Trash Talk: Fee Evasion and Techniques of Neutralization by Older Women in Response to Rising Garbage Collection Fees
Trash and crime are not ordinarily mentioned in the same breath, but rising costs to dispose of rubbish are leading some to engage in criminal
behavior. Costs for rubbish disposal have become much more expensive recently due to many factors, including rising land prices, strict environmental
regulations, and host fees paid to localities to accept landfills. Add to this the current world-wide economic crisis which has left many scrambling
just to make ends meet. This is especially true for older individuals on a fixed income. These individuals, however, are creative economic
actors. Two ways some innovative individuals have found to pare rubbish removal costs are fee avoidance and undesirable diversion. In this
project, older women found ways to cut their household costs by ‘sharing’ rubbish collection costs with neighbors. Unfortunately, for the actors, this
behavior is a crime. While it is unlikely that the women trash sharers in this study will ever find themselves in prison for fee avoidance or borough
ordinance violations, the increase in this type of economic coping strategy should be of interest to criminologists. As the population ages and inequality
increases, many older females may feel that they must break the law in order to afford basic services. Economic stimulus packages that do not address
the needs of older Americans will only exacerbate the problems of older Americans.
Bullying Boys: An Examination of Hegemonic Masculinity in the Playground
Violence between young men, particularly resulting from the emergence of a so called ‘gun and knife culture’, is currently subject
to extensive media coverage in UK . Alongside this there has been increased anxiety about both the scale and impact of bullying in
schools. These issues form part of a more generalised concern about men and boys in Britain often referred to as a ‘crisis of masculinity’.
This article examines findings from research with male respondents about their relationship with hegemonic masculinity and bullying whilst at
school and makes suggestions as to
what can be done to tackle abusive behaviour amongst boys and young men.
Parent Abuse: Some Reflections on the Adequacy of a Youth Justice Response
This short paper draws on data from a recent study which explored parents’ experiences of the youth
justice process, including their own receipt of a Parenting Order as a result of their child’s
involvement in offending. Whilst talking about their experiences, both mothers and fathers described
experiences of ‘parent abuse’ and, drawing on extracts from these accounts, this paper reflects on the
appropriateness of a dominant youth justice policy agenda - realised through the Parenting Order – in
responding to such experiences. In doing so, it questions what alternatives there may be for responding
adequately to ‘parent abuse’ and suggests that a new conceptualisation of the issue is necessary before
adequate support and resources can be put in place for such parents and their families.
Finding the Far Right Online: An Exploratory Study of White Supremacist Websites
White supremacists and the Far Right political movement in the UK have, had considerable success in spreading their messages through Web sites. Some
of these Web sites clearly contribute to an enabling environment for racially motivated violence in our towns and cities and possibly help to underpin
also the rise of, and support for, the Far Right in the UK and elsewhere in Europe. From a position that acknowledges the enduring issue of white
hegemony in Western societies, this paper provides a number of research-based recommendations for further research and future policy and practice in
tackling white supremacist racial hatred on the Net.
The German Hate Crime Concept:
An Account of the Classification and Registration of Bias-Motivated Offences and the Implementation of the
Hate Crime Model Into Germany's Law Enforcement System
In the United States, hate crime has been on the criminological agenda since the 1980s. In 2001, Germany also made an attempt to
adopt a similar concept as part of a reformed police registration system for so-called ‘politically motivated offences’, focusing
predominantly on right-wing extremist crime. However, hate crime is a category which is open to selective interpretations and subjective
judgments and to date there are still large empirical deficiencies regarding the identification and classification processes applied
by the German police. High levels of ambiguity, uncertainty and arbitrariness initiate a debate surrounding the validity of official
hate crime statistics in Germany and reveal a large potential for conflict when it comes to the definition and registration of xenophobic
violence and other forms of hate-motivated crime. In this respect, it seems indispensible to carefully evaluate the implementation of the
hate crime concept into Germany’s law enforcement system and to analyze current trends and developments, in order to provide valid data on
the qualitative and quantitative nature of hate crime incidents in German society.
Researching White Supremacists Online:
Methodological Concerns of Researching Hate 'Speech'
Researching crime online is a new frontier for criminologists, psychologists and sociologists. This
paper explains and describes a virtual ethnographic study of white supremacists using a method best
described as covert, invisible, non-participatory observation. The paper explains how difficult ethical
issues were addressed in the study and points the way forward for further research in this area.
Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: A Tale of Neglect?
The Prison Service’s increased emphasis on security and control has generated many obstacles for the effective delivery of psychiatric
care to mentally disordered prisoners. Such prisoners do not have the necessary mental strength or coping mechanisms to deal with the
‘prison culture’ and this is particularly so for women, young people and ethnic minorities. Conflicting ideologies between the prison
regime and the NHS mean that the mental health services available to prisoners are limited. Therapeutic communities offer a potential
solution to the dire situation the Prison Service finds itself in.
A Period in Custody: Menstruation and the Imprisoned Body
This article, based upon pilot work conducted in a closed women’s prison in England, explores women prisoners’ own experiences
and accounts of menstruation and the complex role of situation in determining reactions to menstrual symptoms and to menstrual change.
Socialised to see menstruation in negative terms, women prisoners tend to perceive the experience of menstruation in prison as a particularly
uncomfortable intrusion into their lives. It is an imposition which cannot, however, be accommodated in private. Negative expectations and
experiences of menstruation in prison may influence many women prisoners to focus on its associated unpleasant symptoms. Here, imprisonment
may well set up the circumstances in which women come to regard themselves as suffering, which will, in turn, determine whether or not they
help-seek. The findings suggest a high level of menstrual distress in women prisoners and a high rate of use of prison health services for
menstrual complaints. However, there is also evidence to suggest incongruous referral behaviour, a major cause of which seems to be unease or
dissatisfaction with prison health care and, in particular, male doctors.
Neither Scylla Nor Charybdis: Transcending the Criminological Dualism Between Rationality and the Emotions
Recent criminological theory has featured a division between rationality and the emotions as ways of constructing and
understanding the actions of the criminological subject. This dualistic opposition renders it difficult to integrate
reasons and emotions within a single theory of action or explanatory framework. This article proposed to overcome this
dualism by re-theorising the relationship between rationality and emotions. Drawing on the theoretical and philosophical
work of Margaret Archer and Martha Nussbaum, it makes a case for understanding emotions as reasonable (and hence rational)
subjective judgements about objective experiential worlds. In this way, we can proceed by understanding actions as based in
‘emotional reasons’ and ‘reasonable emotions’, rather than confining emotions to the realm of the irrational or arational. In
doing so, we overcome the dualism that threatens to undermine the explanatory or interpretive possibilities of criminological theory.
Mixing the Medicine: The unintended consequence of amphetamine control on the Northern Soul Scene
Examining the influences leading to the introduction of amphetamine controls in Britain, this article focuses upon the
consequences of the Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act 1964, and subsequent legislation. These laws had a major impact
upon earlier Mod and later Northern Soul Scene subcultures in Britain, because both held amphetamine use as a central
component of their recreational activities.
The paper aims to provide greater understanding of the way criminalisation of amphetamines impacted on a user
subculture that developed prior to criminalisation. While the 1964 Act effectively restricted supplies of amphetamines
from the grey market, its failure to reduce demand created the market conditions for illicitly manufactured amphetamines.
The changed legal setting also provided subcultural justification for the burglary of retail pharmacies which began soon after
criminalisation. The response of the authorities to increased burglary of pharmacies had a particularly damaging impact on the
amphetamine user culture of the post-mod Northern Soul Scene in the mid-1970s. The introduction of tighter storage regulations,
stipulating the need to store Class B drugs in a secure metal cabinet with the opiates, led to a new cultural exchange between
the amphetamine using chemist burglars and opiate user groups that involved the sale of the unwanted class A drugs, including exchanging
opiates for amphetamine powder. The resulting spread of intravenous drug use on the Northern Scene, introduced a number of negative
health impacts including the spread of hepatitis and drug related deaths.
Ex-offenders, Social Ties and the Routes Into Employment
Although the role that employment plays in reducing re-offending has been widely acknowledged,
less work has been done to explain why this should be the case. To begin to address this knowledge
gap, this article focuses upon the various ways that ex-offenders benefit from employment opportunities,
some of the specific difficulties they face in finding employment and how some manage to overcome them
legitimately or else employ other adaptive strategies. Based on in-depth research with a sample of 12
ex-offenders, the research reveals the precise importance of the role of social relationships in securing
and maintaining employment for ex-offenders. Importantly, the key role of social ties in the labour market –
for those who have them – highlights the extent to which those leaving prison lack both the relevant vocational
training and experience of the application process to compete effectively within a labour market that is already set heavily against them.
Ethnic Minority Representation on Juries – A Missed Opportunity
People from ethnic minority groups (non-white) generally do not have confidence in the jury system.
This is because they are not, or do not consider that they are, reasonably represented. Their lack of
participation in this part of the criminal justice system means that such groups do not perceive that
justice is done as far as they are concerned. This has implications for the belief that the right to a
fair trial under article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights is maintained in the courts. The
question of lack of representation of ethnic minority groups in individual jury trials is one that has been
raised in a number of common law jurisdictions the USA and in cases before the European Court of Human Rights.
But there is also a persistent failure to address the question of institutional racism as a process by which people
from ethnic minority groups are excluded from the jury system in general. This is of great importance in the
current context of racial discrimination, its link with the Trans Atlantic slave trade and the issue of reparations.
The refusal to deal with institutional racism as a process of exclusion indicates a lack of understanding of how
discrimination permeates justice systems. This is compounded by the fact that - in aiming to attain justice in
individual cases of racial bias in juries - English courts, the government and its commissions have paid scant
attention to the inclusion of ethnic minority peoples as jurors as a matter of course. Rather, the focus on
inclusion issues has often been construed as a matter of race. This lacuna indicates that there is little grasp
of the extent to which institutional racism plays a role in the process of excluding ethnic minorities from
participating in the jury per se. This matter arises not only in the UK but in other jurisdictions where the question
of racial bias, representation and white juries is raised. It is argued that positive measures should be used to
redress this problem that would also demonstrate a commitment to dealing with slave trade reparations claims.
Three propositions will be discussed: a) the exercise of judicial discretion; b) a firm rule requiring a number of people
from ethnic minority groups on jury panels where race is an issue and; c) the presence of people from ethnic minority groups on
any jury panel. The latter would occur, regardless of the issue in the case, in areas where there is a substantial number
in the population and where this would not create practical difficulties. This paper strongly supports proposition C.
It is submitted that such a measure would help to instil confidence in the jury system as regards people from ethnic minority groups..
The Geography of Bus Shelter Damage: The Influence of Crime, Neighbourhood Characteristics and Land-Use
This paper offers unique insights into the distribution of damage to bus shelters, in a single case study area, Merseyside (UK).
The geography of bus shelter damage is examined in relation to the criminogenic and socio-economic characteristics of its
neighbourhood, and the local land use context. The findings suggest that shelter damage is related in a known and predictable
way to known characteristics of its neighbourhood, and that shelters in areas with high levels of anti social behaviour and
violence against the person are more susceptible to bus shelter damage. Two key factors in the occurrence of bus shelter
damage appear to be lack of capable guardianships and the presence of youths. In relation to the influence of land use, the
presence of parks, children’s play areas and schools (particularly those whose unauthorised truancy levels were above the national
average) were positively correlated with shelter damage. By contrast, negative relationships were found between shelter damage and
the presence of pubs, clubs, and off-licenses. The implications of these findings for crime prevention are then discussed, alongside
some potential avenues for future research.
A Spatial Analysis of Neighbourhood Crime in Omaha, Nebraska Using Alternative Measures of Crime Rates
This paper analyzed the spatial patterns of four types of crime (assault, robbery, autotheft, and burglary) and
their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics in the City of Omaha, Nebraska by using geographic
information systems procedures and ordinary least square regression methods. Location quotients of crime
and crime density were employed as two alternative measures of crime rates. This article has three important
findings: First, the rationale of the employment of official crime rates for neighbourhood crime study is
questionable; Second, while location quotients can be used to highlight the prevalent types of crime across
urban neighbourhoods, they have limited use for the statistical analysis; and third, crime density focuses
on the spatial intensity of crime and is more appropriate as the indicator of neighbourhood level crime
than population-standardized crime rates and location quotients. This article not only presents important
insights into the enhanced interpretation of the geography of neighbourhood crime, but also can be considered
as testing the social disorganization theory and routine activity theory by using different measures instead
of crime rates. Policy implications pertaining to neighbourhood crime mapping and law enforcement intervention are discussed at the end.
Any Number You Want? The Impact of Data Cleaning on Internal Validity
Concerns about the internal validity of reconviction studies tend to focus on factors such as initial comparability of groups.
Often overlooked is the impact that data preparation can have. Data preparation refers to the decisions taken by researchers
regarding which offenders to retain in the sample for analysis. Using data relating to a sample of offenders in two police forces,
it is shown that these decisions, even when applied equally to both groups, can impact differentially on reconviction rates,
weakening a study’s internal validity. Implications of the findings are considered and recommendations made to improve the
transparency of the process.
Culture of Crime Control: Through a Post-Foucauldian Lens
The paper identifies the broad organising ideas relating to David Garland’s (2001) ‘Culture of Control’ thesis.
The critique respectfully identifies some theoretical deficits within Garland’s use of Foucauldian concepts pertaining
to power, discourse, the conflation of agency and structure etcetera. Several post-Foucauldian ‘modifications’
are recommended including the use of some insights from Owen’s (2006a) Genetic-Social approach and Layder’s (1997)
notion of Psychobiography. The findings of this conceptual and theoretical approach illustrate that Garland’s
thesis would be enhanced by a post-Foucauldian, metatheoretical emphasis upon the dialectical relationship between
the systemic and relational aspects of power; dualism; Psychobiography; and an anti-reductionist critique of
agency-structure, micro-macro and time-space of the kind associated with the work of Owen (ibid) and Sibeon (1996, 2004).
Alley-Gating Revisited: The Sustainability of Resident’s Satisfaction?
Alleys (snickets, ginnels, backways) are particularly common in British industrial cities and were originally
designed to allow access to the rear of properties by coalmen and refuse collectors. Although alleys are still
useful to allow residents access to the rear of their property without walking through the house, they also provide
a means of entry and escape for offenders. Alley-gating is a crime reduction measure that involves the installation of
a lockable gate across an alley, preventing access for anyone who does not have a key. This paper presents the findings
of a study undertaken to examine the sustainability of Liverpoool’s Alley-gating scheme (a robust evaluation of Liverpool’s
scheme was undertaken in 2002 see Young et al, 2003; Bowers et al, 2004). It specifically reports on the results of a
residents’ survey undertaken in gated and non-gated areas. The findings are compared with those from 2002. The results
suggest that the positive impacts on perceptions of crime and anti-social behaviour, and experience of crime and
anti-social behaviour have been maintained over a four year period in Liverpool.
Risk, Respectability and Responsibilisation:
Unintended driver responses to speed limit enforcement
A preoccupation with risk as a rationale for enforcement has led to significant changes in both the
practice of control and the experience of being controlled. A concern with risk, howsoever caused, has led to whole
new populations being drawn within the state's regulatory gaze and prosecuted under strict liability laws. The use of
speed cameras to enforce speed limits has been one such development which has been the subject of intense public debate.
This paper situates this controversy within a risk framework and explores the way in which drivers who describe themselves,
in various ways, as 'respectable' have responded to this new role as a ‘risky’, rather than ‘at risk’, population. The
negative consequences associated with being identified as a source of risk have, it is suggested, allowed drivers to re-conceptualise
themselves as the victim, rather than cause, of risk on the roads. They have then been able to reject responsibility for risk
while enthusiastically pursuing methods of responsibilisation which protect them from it.
Old Age and Victims:
A Critical Exegesis and an Agenda for Change
The elderly population merits more sustained sociological and criminological investigation
because in western societies and globally the general population is both ageing and
growing in size. This article critically analyses issues of old age and crime, focusing
upon old age and victimisation, fear of crime and ageing offenders. The article sets out
a proposed agenda for change in the focus of the criminal justice system, with a call
for research to better inform policy and practice in this strangely neglected but
increasingly important area of ageing and crime.
Dynamic Strategies to Legitimise Deviant Behaviour of Street Culture Youth By Dr Steffen Zdun, academic member of staff, University of Bielefeld, Germany.
This article focuses upon street-level violence, particularly upon issues of guilt neutralization
and offending legitimization. Primarily, the paper is a synthesis of findings from the author’s
empirical research in the field of youth violence and his in-depth critical examination of the
published literature in this area. The paper asks some telling questions about what is currently known
about offender guilt-neutralization and legitimization at various points before, during and after violent crimes.
Ultimately, the author argues for the need to develop criminological theory and undertake more research to
better understand the dynamic strategies that offenders employ to legitimize their violent offending.
Postmodern Policies? The Erratic Interventions of Constitutive Criminolgy By Mark Cowling, Reader in Criminology, School of Social Sciences and Law, University of Teesside, UK.
The constitutive criminology of Henry and Milovanovic and associated writers is the most positive and systematic
attempt to develop a postmodern criminology. One way in which to judge a new departure of the sort is in terms of
its results: what interventions, what ideas about policy or politics, does it offer in contrast to its antecedents?
This article starts by very briefly outlining the theoretical foundations of constitutive criminology, which it
identifies as a particular interpretation of Lacan, matched with chaos theory. It then reviews some of the main
interventions proposed by constitutive criminologists. It argues that these add little to existing radical ideas,
except for a potentially disastrous fascination with far-from-equilibrium conditions.
SELF-HELP AS AN EXPLANATION FOR VIOLENCE AMONG FEMALE INMATES: A Preliminary Assesment. By M. Dyan McGuire, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Saint Louis University, USA.
Data were gathered from 52 female inmates residing in two women’s prisons located in Missouri, USA, through semi-structured
interviews in order to document the existence of violence among female inmates and to evaluate causes of such violence.
Donald Black’s self help theory was used as a paradigm for evaluating causes of violence among female inmates.
The results of this study suggest that violence among female inmates is more common than typically assumed.
The results also suggest that Black’s theory may account for the large amount of violence associated with homosexual
relationships but is unable to explain the existence of predatory violence aimed at forcibly acquiring property or
accomplishing sexual assault. Prison policies including those prohibiting homosexual conduct and the apparent de
facto policy of punishing everyone involved in a fight may be unwittingly contributing to the problem of violence
among female inmates. Possible reforms that might be helpful are discussed and analyzed.
SURVEILLANCE THROUGH CARE AND CONTROL: The Case of the Mentally Ill in Madison and Britain. By Mike Stephens, Senior Lecturer in Criminology and Social Policy at Loughborough University.
Increasing moral panic in Britain, fuelled by newspaper reports of ‘innocent’
victims being murdered by persons with serious mental illness failed by the
system of community care, has led the government to consider the introduction
of greater powers of compulsory treatment and detention for such individuals.
Government plans have encountered much opposition in Britain, in particular
from mental health professionals and those concerned with civil liberties.
The government insists that the community care of the most seriously and potentially
dangerous mental health consumers has failed. Its draft powers of compulsion are
one further example of a gradual drift in Britain towards mounting surveillance
of difficult groups not on an inclusive and caring basis but on an approach dependent
on exclusionary and compulsory means, many of which have implications for civil liberties.
However, in contrast to the government’s position, there is at least one place,
Madison, Wisconsin, where a most successful system of community care for persons
with mental illness can be found. There, even the most seriously ill individuals
are frequently treated in the community so that they can exercise their civil rights
to enjoy as normal and independent a life as possible.
Behaviour on London Buses and Tubes: Three Cases of Incivility By Simon Mackenzie, Lecturer in Criminology, School of Criminology, Education, Sociology and Social Work, Keele University
This paper reports observational data recorded on three journeys on London’s
public transport network in 2004. The data is reported as experience in an
approach that attempts, in the phenomenological vein, to bring the incidents
to life for the reader. The strong subjectivity in this approach to the write
up of data is then tempered by a more objective analysis of the three events.
In this, the paper explores a link between the highly subjective, micro-level
data, and the structuring propensities of the market. The ‘marketisation’ of
emotion is argued to have structuring effects on morality as it is constructed
and manipulated at an individual level.
A Deadly Faith in Fakes: Trademark Theft and the Global Trade in Counterfeit Automotive Components By Dr Majid Yar, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research (SPSSR), University of Kent at Canterbury
Intellectual property (IP) crime remains as yet a marginal topic in sociological and
criminological investigation. This neglect is due in part to the perception that such
offences are ‘non-serious’ and/or ‘victimless’. This paper sets out to challenge such
assumptions by examining a particular instance of IP crime, namely the counterfeiting
of dangerous goods, and in particular the counterfeiting of automotive components. It
is argued that such activities, now globally widespread, carry both significant economic
costs, and that they pose substantial risks to public health and safety. Some of the key
drivers of this trade are analysed, along with recent developments in law, policing,
crime control and technological innovation that aim to curtail the counterfeiting of
these and other dangerous counterfeit products. It is argued that IP crime comprises
a socially significant and sociologically challenging phenomenon, one that deserves
concerted attention from those working in the sociology of crime, law, health, risk,
technology and political economy.
Bulldog Whistling: Criminalization of Young Lebanese-Australian Rugby League Fans
This article traces the course of a series of moral panics over the banding together,
group identification and collective action of certain groups of young people - mainly young men - in
and around some mass sporting events in New South Wales, Australia, in 2001-4. It could be a story of
‘football hooliganism’, except that the sport is not football (or ‘soccer’, as it is known in Australia),
but rugby league. That such ‘collective behaviour’ had been relatively unknown in this sporting milieu in
Australia provided the opportunity for the racialized ‘othering’ of those labelled as deviant, in the context
of the construction of the ‘Arab Other’ (and later the Muslim Other) as the pre-eminent folk demon of
Restorative Justice and Three Individual Theories of Crime
This paper first reviews the concept of restorative justice, and then examines the affinities and tensions between restorative justice and three ‘individual’ criminological theories:
classicism, individual positivism, and ‘law and order’ conservatism. These theories have been selected because of their significance in the development of
present criminal justice policies.
Of Targets and Supertargets: A Routine Activity Theory of High Crime Rates
The notion of supertargets is introduced for the first time in this paper to refer to the 3 or 4 percent of chronically victimised targets that account for around 40 percent
of crime victimisation. The esteemed authors demonstrate that theory-testing relating to crime requires the inclusion of the crime concentration rate to incorporate
repeat victimisation and they indicate how mathematical modelling may, in turn, illuminate the crime concentration predictions of routine activity theory.
'Race', Ethnicity and the Courts by Tahir Abbas, University of Birmingham
This paper discusses findings that have emerged from the Department for Constitutional Affairs (formerly the Lord Chancellor’s Department)
Courts and Diversity Research Programme. During 1999-2003 four projects were commissioned, completed by academic researchers and published by the department.
This paper explores the background issues to the research programme, the specific area of ethnicity within the criminal justice system, and addresses the
implications of findings for socio-legal research evidenced-based policy.
Rebels with a Cause, Folk Devils without a Panic: Press jingoism, policing tactics and anti-capitalist protest in London and Prague by Fiona Donson (Cardiff University), Graeme Chesters (Edge Hill College), Ian Welsh (Cardiff University) and Andrew Tickle (CPRE)
This paper examines whether anti-capitalist political activists are (mis)constructed as ‘folk devils’, through an examination of media coverage in the UK
and Czech Republic. The construction, of such protestors, as violent criminals and dangerous ‘anarchists’ has, it is argued, influenced their treatment
at protests by public authorities in London and Prague. The paper also offers, in juxtaposition to this representation of the current anti-capitalism movement,
a discussion of the accounts of activists themselves. In particular it examines the activists’ own perceptions of their engagement in the global social movement against capitalism.
The paper is based on evidence drawn from the preliminary findings of interdisciplinary research into global social movements, and in particular the protests
against the International Monetary Fund and World Bank in Prague in September 2000.
Where Do We Go From Here? Researching Hate Crime by Barbara Perry, Northern Arizona University.
This paper identifies
several strangely neglected areas of hate crime scholarship, including the
lack of critical reflection on the usefulness of the term “hate crime” as
a descriptor of bias motivated behavior. Concerning measurement issues,
concepts and causes, hate groups, responses to hate crimes and comparative
scholarship, there are many gaps in our knowledge that are avenues for
further enquiry. In particular, we have failed to examine the specificity
of the bias crime experiences of diverse victim groups.
A Tale of Two Anomies by Roger Hopkins Burke and Edward
Pollock, both at Nottingham Trent University
Interactive Race and Gender Differences: Models of Bias by Dr Dyan McGuire, St Louis University, USA
Dyan McGuire's paper is based on a sample of 64,466 young people
referred to the juvenile court of Missouri USA in 1997. This important
paper uncovers the complex nature of racial and gender bias in the
court's decision making. Perhaps the most important finding is that,
controlling for other important variables such as offence and offending
history, Black males and Black and White females are disadvantaged by
the courts decision making regarding detention and are treated less
favourably than White males.
Understanding King Punisher and His Order: Vandalism in an Online Community - Motives, Meanings and Possible Solutions by Matthew Williams, Cardiff University.
This article makes one of the most significant contributions to undertanding
motivation for vandalism, and the characteristics of its group dynamics,
since Stan Cohen's (1973) "Property Destruction: Motives and Meanings". Dr
Mathew William's work shows how much things have changed in the last 30
years since Professor Cohen wrote that vandalism requires little technical
Please note due to the inclusion of colour images in this article readers not using broadband may find the download time longer than usual - please be patient, the wait will be worthwhile!
Women Inside and Out by Helen Codd.
Anti-Semitism and the Christian Right in post-Miloševic Serbia by Jovan Byford.
This paper proposes that understanding the causes of anti-Semitic hate crime requires the recognition of the cultural specificity of anti-Semitism, reflected in its unique mythical and conspiratorial nature.
By neglecting to consider the idiosyncrasies of anti-Semitic rhetoric, general theories of hate crime often fail to provide an adequate explanation for the persistence of anti-Jewish violence,
especially in cultures where Jews do not constitute a conspicuous minority, or where there is no noticeable tradition of anti-Jewish sentiment.
The Evolution of Hate by David Mann, Mike Sutton and Rachel Tuffin.
This article examines the activities of white racists and racialists and how these activities have expanded since the invention of the World Wide Web and Internet newsgroups.
The paper provides useful insights into the social dynamics of white racist and anti-racist activists in Internet newsgroups.
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